Enclaves and Exclaves

What is a country? or better yet, How does a country come into existence?

In the past, people of the same culture or same religion used to stay together in groups. And that was how regions under same cultural background formed their own kingdoms which later became the countries which we now know.

Imagine this scenario: During the time of separation of two countries A and B, a village X with people culturally aligned to the people of country B happens to fall under the area of country A. Now the people of the village X are not willing to join country A and also country B doesn’t want to lose out extra citizens. After a lot of diplomatic meetings, both the countries come to a truce and the village X becomes an area of country B enclosed by area of country A and separated from country B.

Hence the village X is an enclave of country B in Country A.

Interesting!! Ain’t it?

Here’s the proper definition of the term with real-world examples.


Enclave is a territory or a part of a territory of a state that is entirely surrounded by a territory or a part of a territory of another state.



An exclave is a portion of a state or territory geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory (of one or more states).


Many exclaves are also enclaves. Unlike an enclave, an exclave can be surrounded by several states. Islands are not considered to be any type of Enclave or Exclave.

Here are some of the Types of Enclaves and Exclaves:

1. Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves:

Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves are areas that, except for possessing an unsurrounded sea border, would otherwise be enclaves or exclaves. Some examples:


  • Alaska, one of the states in the USA, separated from the US by Canada.
  • Kaliningrad Oblast is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), a semi-exclave situated on the Baltic coast.

2. Pene-Enclave

A Pene-enclave is a part of the territory of one country that can be approached conveniently only through the territory of another country.


  • Kleinwalsertal is a valley in Austria that is only accessible from Germany in the North.

3. An enclave within Enclaves:

An enclave of one country can be completely surrounded by a part of another country that is itself an enclave of the first country. These enclaves are sometimes called counter-enclaves or Second Order Enclaves. Examples:

  • Nahwa, UAE is surrounded by Madha, Oman within the U.A.E.

4. Ethnic Enclaves: It is the area of Ethnic Group inside the area of another ethnic group.

Let us Understand everything with the below example:

An example of Enclaves and Exclaves

An example of Enclaves and ExclavesA1 is a semi-enclave (attached to C and also bounded by water that only touches C’s territorial water). Although A2 is an exclave of A, it cannot be classed as an enclave because it shares borders with B and C. The territory A3 is both an exclave of A and an enclave from the viewpoint of B. The singular territory D, although an enclave, is not an exclave whereas E is Enclave to A. A4 and A5 are Second order enclaves whereas E1 is third order enclave.


Some Cool Facts:

  • There was only one 3rd Order Enclave named as Dahala Khagrabari, it was an Indian Enclave, within Bangladesh, within India, within Bangladesh., It was ceded to Bangladesh on 1st August 2015.
  • There were as many as 198 enclaves along the Borders of India & Bangladesh prior to 1st August 2015 consisting more than 80% of Enclaves and Exclaves in the world.
  • One Exclave of Kyrgyzstan in Uzbekistan has more than 99% of people of Tajikistan.
  • Alaska is the largest Semi Enclave in the World.
Posted by Ankit in Geography, 0 comments

How I Met Your Mother (TV Series)

Season 1-9: Each season contains 22 episodes

Duration: Each episodes is 22 mins long (Believe me, one can complete an entire season in a Day – Personal Experience)

Cast: Josh Radnor (as Ted Mosby), Cobie Smulders (as Robin Scherbatsky), Alyson Hannigan (as Lily Aldrin), Jason Segel (as Marshal Eriksen), Neil Patrick Harris (as Barney Stinson) and Cristin Milioti (as Tracey McConnell).

Overview : This show is a comedy TV Series which loosely revolves around 5 friends (similar to F.R.I.E.N.D.S, so if you’ve seen that, I’d definitely recommend this show too). One of the main characters, Ted Mosby played by Josh Radnor narrates the story to his children, in Year 2030, about his past life with his friends in New York and how he met their mother. (See, that’s exactly the title of the show. Silly me!).

Even though the story is mostly about Ted, the lives of his friends are beautifully entwined to create various storylines about their relationships and friendship with each other.

What to Expect: How I Met Your Mother has the record of largest finale viewership till date. This show has lots of comedy, drama, romance, emotions everything. Barney Stinson played by Neil Patrick Harris steals the show with his awesome performance.

Level of Recommendation: Well I won’t give 10 out of 10 because of Fucked up Finale. But definitely it a show one should have on their watch list.

  • This show is “Legen-wait for it- dary Legendary” (you will understand after you watch the pilot episode)
  • Everyone should follow Barney’s advice as he say “Whenever I’m sad, I stop being sad and be awesome instead”
  • For people’s Safety – “Nothing good happens after 2 a.m
  • “Have You Met Ted?” then meet him here

Feel free to contact us here on any query and you can also share your views about the show.


Posted by RKJ in Uncategorised, 0 comments

Sherlock (TV Series)

Seasons 1-4 : Each season has 3 episodes.

Duration : Each episode is of  90 mins approximately. (It may seem long but every minute is worth it, believe me.)

Cast : Benedict Cumberbatch (as Sherlock Holmes), Martin Freeman (as Dr. John Watson), Mark Gatiss ( as Mycroft Holmes), Amanda Abbington (as Mary Morstan), Andrew Scott ( as Professor Moriarty), Louise Brealey (as Molly Hooper), Una Stubbs (as Mrs. Hudson), Rupert Graves (as Inspector Lestrade).

Overview :  For those who have already read the series by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and liked it, this show is a must watch. For those who have never heard the name Sherlock, this series will change your life.

What to Expect? – Sherlock is a modern day interpretation of the famous books, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. It is a story of a consulting detective (only one in the world having invented the job) played by Benedict Cumberbatch (a.k.a hottie, and I’m definitely not biased) who solves eccentric crimes and is joined by Dr. John Watson, a former army doctor, played by Martin Freeman. Then comes, Mrs. Hudson (my favourite character from the show, who is also the funniest) the quirky landlady of their flat at 221B Baker Street, everything set in the 21st Century London.

The series is a fast paced thriller-crime-mystery-drama show , each episode having an unique and brilliant plot. The dialogues, the screenplay, the quality of writing, the direction, all are at the utmost level of perfection.

Level of Recommendation : 10 out of 10 definitely. The fans of Sherlock Holmes could not have asked for a better adaptation and I’m saying this because I’m one of them.

It is worth every second you spend watching it. Also, if you do watch all the four seasons and are rooting for more, there is also a Christmas Special episode titled, The Abominable Bride which is just as awesome.

“The Game is on”

Feel free to contact us here on any query and you can also share your views about the show.

Posted by Bibliophile in Uncategorised, 0 comments

No Sugar Challenge (NSC)


I gotta confess, I am a sugar addict. It’s like I need a dose of sugar after every meal in whatever form I can get it for eg. chocolate, sweet, sugar cube, etc. I don’t want to get diabetes. I needed to change something.

No Artificial Sugar challenge or NASC, in short, is to leave artificial sugar for as long as you can.

I decided to do this just out of curiosity and to see whether I really can quit sugar.  I read many articles about the ill effects of sugar and the good changes that our bodies undergo after quitting it.

The main goal here is to regulate sugar in my diet and start a healthy lifestyle along with Weight loss (which is definitely a side goal). The terms of the challenge are given below.

Terms of Challenge

  1. No artificial or processed sugar of any sort (Also no chocolates.).
  2. Only natural sugar which is present in fruits and veggies is allowed.
  3. No processed foods such as chips and any packed stuff you get in supermarkets, etc.
  4. Every Sunday I get to reward myself with a small chocolate just to control the cravings for the whole week.
  5. That’s the end of conditions I guess.

Day 1 (16-01-2018)

The first day was the easiest. I didn’t even feel like I was on a no sugar diet thingy. I just carried on my regular schedule, then went to the gym and back home and just like that, it was the end of day 1.

Also, I did go and buy a lot of fruits (no banana) and oats. The key to not realizing sugar cravings is to get engrossed in work and divert your mind from all those sweet-savory desserts.

Day 2 (17-01-2018)

Just as I thought this day will also go as a breeze, I found a box full of sweets at my place and was so tempted to grab one and eat. But, I stuck to the challenge and fought the urge. I think the cravings get real intense after a week or so.

I had an apple in the morning and a pear in the evening to stop the urges. And also a bunch of grapes in the noon.

Day 3 (18-01-2018)

The best way to complete any challenge is to be accountable for it. That’s when I decided to write about it. So, today I started writing about it. This is going to be a post where I’ll keep updating the status on a regular basis.

All the outcomes and changes which I go through will be posted in a different post.I don’t know the amount of time it’ll be before I feel changes in mind and body. Let’s hope it’ll be soon enough.

The breakfast today was a bowl of oats and cold milk with fruits (Green Apple, Pomegranate, Kiwi) added to it. Also, I put half tablespoon honey in the oats bowl. It sure was yummy and filling.

Day 4 & 5 (19/20-01-2018)

Being busy has its perks. I didn’t even know that I was on No sugar diet. These two days went off like a breeze. By the end of Saturday, I was happy that I’ve gone 5 days without sugar. Here’s what helped me come this far: Lots of fruits, busy in work and hitting the gym daily.

Being a hardcore sugar lover, I was feeling elated that I’ve gone 5 days without sugar. If I can do it, then everyone can do it.

Day 6 (21-01-2018-Sunday)

I was in a dilemma whether to have a cheat day or not. I wanted to continue my streak. So, for lunch, I was at a party and my arch rival Ice Cream was also present. It was a tough fight between my temptation and my consciousness. Craving took over me and I went and had a cup of Ice cream. No harm was done as it was my cheat day, I was allowed to have a small helping of sweet stuff. But in evening I was out with friends and craving took over me as I went to an Ice cream place. Had another Ice cream.

Day 7, 8 & 9 (22/23/24-01-2018)

I just couldn’t resist the sweets that were made at home. Had some Ice cream again on Monday. Tuesday and Wednesday also I had sweets. The reason my mind kept feeding me was that “These sweets are made only once a year.If not now, then you’ll have to wait another year to have them. Hence it’s okay to have them for one last time.”

I felt like shit for breaking my challenge and all. I was frustrated and was ready to give up. But then I also wanted to get that win streak back on. I was not going to lose out on a silly challenge. I want to get back up and finish the challenge. So from tomorrow, I’ll be back on the diet.

Day 10 & 11 (25/26-01-2018)

Felt good to be back on track. 25th went well. No cravings, no temptation whatsoever. Did an intense cardio workout at the gym and was feeling good.

26th January is the was a holiday(Republic Day). No going to work. I am free the whole day. Being free means more cravings looking at sweets. I was habituated to eat something sweet after every meal. So it’s tough to not eat sweet after my meals. I’m controlling very hard.

Next week (27 to 2-02-2018)

It’s pain in the ass to upload progress daily. I guess this challenge to me was only to know whether I’m able to leave a thing that I love or not. It surely was a success till now except for the break in the middle.

I surely don’t wanna write about it daily though. Sometimes the cravings get too intense but after a while I just started perceiving sweets as bad thing. I’ll still continue with the challenge but won’t be documenting it daily. Instead I’ll try to focus on the benefits of leaving sugar after sometimes and write a separate post about it.

Here are some tips for anyone who wants to try this Challenge.

  • Make yourselves busy to be distracted from cravings.
  • If the cravings get intense, take a small cheat sweet once every week or so.
  • Eat a fruits if you feel like eating something sweet.
  • Think about the future image of the better you to get the required motivation.

For any details and queries, leave a comment below.

Say no to sugar to stay fit.

Posted by Ankit in Challenges, 0 comments